# Arithmetic Measure

Arithmetic measures allow you to perform simple calculations with measures in a visualization.
A calculated **arithmetic measure** always references two measures, therefore the visualization must contain two measures at least.

## Supported operations

Although a visualization can contain multiple measures, you can perform arithmetic operations with exactly only **two** measures.

The following arithmetic operations are supported:

Operation | Arithmetic measure operator | Expression formula | Example |
---|---|---|---|

Sum | `sum` | =A+B | = Q1 revenue + Q2 revenue |

Difference | `difference` | =A-B | = revenue in 2017 - revenue in 2016 |

Product (Multiplication) | `multiplication` | =A*B | = price per unit * number of units |

Ratio | `ratio` | =A÷B | = gross profit / net sales |

Change | `change` | =(A-B)÷B | = (this month revenue - last month revenue) / last month revenue |

By default, the result data of a `change`

operation is returned as a percentage in the `#,##0.00%`

format. The format cannot be overridden.

All the other operations return data in the default `#,##0.00`

format.
To change the format, use the `format`

attribute of the measure (see the examples).

## Arithmetic measure structure

To add an arithmetic measure to a visualization, use the `newArithmeticMeasure`

factory function:

```
newArithmeticMeasure(operands, operator, modifications)
```

An arithmetic measure can reference the following as its **operand**:

- Simple measures
- Derived measures (see Time Over Time Comparison)
- Another arithmetic measures

You can specify operands either by their `localIdentifier`

or by their value, and the factory function will extract
the local identifier for you.

The **operator** can be one of the following:

`sum`

`difference`

`multiplication`

`ratio`

`change`

The **modifications** part is optional and is a function with a single parameter, which is an object with functions that you can use to override the measure’s `format()`

or `alias()`

.

If arithmetic measures reference each other in an infinite loop or the referenced measure is not found in the visualization (there is no measure with the referenced *localIdentifier*), the error message is rendered instead of the visualization.

## Examples

### A difference between two measures - arithmetic measure constructed using localIdentifier references

```
import { newMeasure, newArithmeticMeasure } from "@gooddata/sdk-model";
import { PivotTable } from "@gooddata/sdk-ui-pivot";
const measures = [
// the first simple measure (operand)
newMeasure("boughtProductsIdentifier", m => m.alias("Bought products from supplier")),
newMeasure("soldProductsLocalIdentifier", m => m.alias("Sold products to customers")),
newArithmeticMeasure(
["boughtProductsLocalIdentifier", "soldProductsLocalIdentifier"],
"difference",
m => m.alias("Products remaining in warehouse")
)
];
<PivotTable
measures={measures}
/>
```

### Calculation with a derived measure (percentage change between two years)

The result of a `change`

operation is returned as a percentage value in the default `#,##0.00%`

format. This example
demonstrates passing measures by value to the different measure factory functions.

```
import { newMeasure, newPopMeasure, newArithmeticMeasure } from "@gooddata/sdk-model";
import { PivotTable } from "@gooddata/sdk-ui-pivot";
const currentYear = newMeasure("measureIdentifier", m => m.alias("Current Year"));
// derived - data from previous year
const previousYear = newPopMeasure(currentYear, "attributeDisplayFormYearIdentifier", m => m.alias("Previous Year"));
// arithmetic measure with custom format
const change = newArithmeticMeasure(previousYear, currentYear, "change", m => m.alias("Change between years").format("$#,#0.0%"));
const measures = [
currentYear,
previousYear,
change
];
<PivotTable
measures={measures}
/>
```

## More information

See the live examples.