# Create Calculated Measures in Insights

You can create your own calculated measures from the measures already available in your insights using basic arithmetic functions.

You can create calculated measures from:

- Measures, calculated measures, and attributes that you add to the
**Measures**section from the Data Catalog - Derived measures created using time-over-time comparison
- Already created calculated measures

You can use the following arithmetic functions:

Function | Expression | Example | Default format |
---|---|---|---|

`Sum` | A+B | Sum of A and B | ##.## |

`Difference` | A-B | Difference of A and B | ##.## |

`Product (Multiplication)` | A×B | Product of A and B | ##.## |

`Ratio` | A÷B | Ratio of A and B | ##.## |

`Change` | (A-B)÷B | Change from B to A | ##.##% |

Calculated measures are available only in the insights where you create them - Analytical Designer does not save these calculated measures to the Data Catalog.

To use them elsewhere, create the calculated measures again in another insight.

## Create a Calculated Measure

**Steps:**

Create an insight with at least two items in the

**Measures**section.In the

**Measures**section, hover your mouse over the plus sign and click**Create Calculated Measure**.In the

**Outcome is**dropdown menu, select the function that you want to use to calculate the new measure.In the

**Where**section, click**Choose Measure**and select a measure from the list of available items for both parts of the function (**A**and**B**).The measures and attributes that you select are highlighted above in the

**Measures**section.Analytical Designer adds a new measure to the

**Measures**section and displays it in the insight.

## Example

You send regular emails to your customers. You want to know how many of these emails are not delivered to the customers' inboxes each year.

Your Data Catalog includes the following data:

- The number of emails you sent to your customers (
`Emails Sent`

) - The number of emails that were actually delivered (
`Emails Delivered`

)

You can use these two measures to calculate the number of emails that customers did not receive.

**Steps:**

- Drag
`Emails Sent`

and`Emails Delivered`

to the**Measures**section. - Add a date to the
**View by**section and group by**Year**. - Click
**Create Calculated Measure**and select:**Difference**as the outcome**Emails Sent**as M1**Emails Delivered**as M2

The following image shows the final insight:

### Names of Calculated Measures

Analytical Designer creates automatic names for calculated measures. The name consists of the name of the function
and the measures used. For example, `Difference of Emails Sent and Emails Delivered`

. For details about changing the name,
see Rename Measures, Attributes, and Dates in Insights.

### Compare Calculated Measures over Time

You can compare calculated measures over time as any regular measure. For details, see Use Time-over-Time Comparison in Insights.

Calculated measures from measures already derived from time-over-time comparison cannot be compared over time again.

### Calculated Measures vs. Original Measures

Calculated measures depend on the measures that are used to create them. If you delete the measure used to create the calculated measure, the calculated measure and measures derived from it are also removed. When you drag the measure to the Data Catalog, Analytical Designer highlights all the measures to be deleted and then displays a message.

If you switch to an insight type that cannot display the measures used to create the calculated measure, the calculated measure is hidden.

## Delete a Calculated Measure

To delete a calculated measure, drag and drop it to the Data Catalog.